Telescript University

January 2, 2019

„Telescript University“ was an early tutorial (at the General Magic premises) on how to program Telescript hold at least in May of 1994. I have a paper copy of the handouts of this event. As there is not so much material about Telescript out there, as I did not find a digital copy of this stuff in the Internet, and as a treat for the one other human interested in this sort of thing on christmas, I scanned the handouts. Here they are. Enjoy!

Title Version Date Content
Telescript-Language-Lessons DRAFT (0.x) June, 1993 Book that teaches Telescript to people with programming experience
TelescriptLanguageExcercises 1.1 8 August 1994 Short document on how to handle the exercises
Telescript Programming Telescript-Programming-part1 Telescript-Programming-part2 1.0c May 1994 The main content of the Telescript University slides: How to program Telescript
Programming-Demonstrations ? ? Short overview on Telescript program examples
HighTelescript 1.0c 24 June 1994 More formal, compact language description of Telescript
ScriptsFromScratch ? ? One programming exercise task
ExamplePrograms ? 8/10/94 A bunch of example programs, partially referenced by above documents
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Everything Magic: The first app store?

December 23, 2018

When I presented my Magic Cap devices at the VCFB 2018 I heard from some people the claim that the Magic Cap devices had the first app store in the history. I never heard that claim before and decided to try to find out more about that.

It so happened that (looking through the material for the Telescript University seminar) I stumbled upon a small leaflet in the 1994 “AT&T PersonaLink Services” brochure that describes (unsurprisingly) the features of the short-lived AT&T service that provided email and other services to Magic Cap devices. One of these services was the “Market Square” service that was basically a platform for electronic shops that could be used by Magic Cap users.

The small leaflet was about one of these shops called “Everything Magic”. You can find the leaflet on page 34 and 35 of this scan of the brochure. The leaflet claims that whether “you’re looking for business software, games or even just a cool General Magic T-shirt, you’ll find it at Everything Magic […]”. The backside of the leaflet goes on: “Fast electronic software delivery. Everything Magic can deliver the software products you need right to your communicator. And because they’re send to you electronically, you get your order quickly.”

This really sounds like an app store. The electronic pay procedure probably came through the Market Square infrastructure. The delivery to the device was (push-wise) “electronically”. Whether this meant an automatic download-and-install method like in a today’s app store or as an attachment of an e-mail is unclear at this point.

According to the leaflet “Everything Magic” is a trademark of “eShop Inc.” According to its Wikipedia page, eShop Inc. was originally founded in 1991 to develop products for Go Corporation’s PenPoint operating system. In later years, it developed software for the Windows for Pen Computing and Magic Cap platforms. From 1993, it developed electronic commerce software, focusing primarily on the “business-to-consumer” marketplace. eShop was acquired by Microsoft in 1996 for less than $50 million and eShop’s technologies were integrated into Microsoft Merchant Server. Pierre Omidyar, one of the founders of eShop, earned over $1 million from the deal and later founded eBay.

So, was “Everything Magic” the first app store? According to the “App store” Wikipedia page, the first app store was the “Electronic AppWrapper” system presented in May 1993. It seems to me that the bulk of the software data of this system was distributed on a CD-ROM (maybe I am wrong there). The next contender Wikipedia mentions is a 1996 SUSE Linux component. It all depends (like for so many “firsts”) on what you see as the defining elements of an app store. Getting some software electronically and installing it on your computer is a very old feature (e.g. the original FTP protocol is from 1971). In my opinion an “app store” is a system where one can browse electronically in programs meant to be executable on some version of the user’s device, select or buy a program electronically, and the chosen program is then transferred and installed automatically in an integrated way (opposed to the need of a user to install a transferred program manually using the OS’ UI procedures). I also have the feeling that when we say “app store” we mean “for a mobile device and all that can happen virtually anywhere through the wireless data connection of the mobile device”. This latter aspect is not really a technical difference (the infrastructure on the server and the end user device side would be the same in either case).

So, if we mean “app store for mobile devices”, “Everything Magic” might have been very well the first one if

  • the program installation would have been taking place automatically (which we do not know currently)
  • if the shop was actually deployed (which we also do not know at this point. Also, one is often suspicious whether things that were announced in the Magic Cap world really made it to the product stage)

If the mobile aspect is not important to your definition of an app store,  “Everything Magic” is at least a very early example.

GridPad 1900: The first mobile pen computer

October 28, 2018

GridPad1900.jpg

As I wrote in my entry for the GRiD Convertible, GRiD was legendary computer manufacturer that produced a lot of “firsts”.

This one is (by and large) the first mobile pen computer. It was released in 1989, two years before NCR released their NCR 3125. It is quite heavy (2 kg) and the pen is connected to the tablet via wire, but it was the first time a company had the vision to give users something like an electronic notepad. In order to do that it offered (restricted) handwriting recognition. The project that led to the GRiDPAD was developed by Jeff Hawkins who would later on found Palm, and then Handspring.

Software- and hardware-wise it was quite far away from what GO and Apple would have in their (later) devices. Instead of an ARM-class CPU, and a special operating system fully exploiting and supporting the possibilities of an electronic notebook, the GRiDPAD has a meager 8086 and MS-DOS (the latter is at least built in and does not need to boot). Apart from a few applications, pen support mainly means that you can fill out text fields with the pen. No harddisk is needed (or offered) as it uses up to 2 battery buffered RAM storage cards as mass memory (up to 2 MB in total).

It is said that 10’000 GRiDPADs were sold in 1990 (probably its most successful year). It was marketed as a niche product mainly towards users with bookkeeping needs.

A later model 1910 had a built in 20MB harddisk, 2MB RAM, a NEC V20 CPU, and a backlit screen. The price for the 1910 was initially $3750.

The (probably) last model of the series was the GRiDPAD SL in 1993 that weighted 2.5 kg and costed initially $4395. This model could also run GO’s PenPoint operating system.

Technical Data

  • Manufacturer: GRiD
  • Model: GRiDPAD Model 1900
  • CPU: 80C86@10MHz
  • RAM: 1 MB
  • ROM: 256 kB
  • OS: MS-DOS 3.3 (built in)
  • Size: 31.4 x 23.5 x 3.6cm
  • Weight: 2 Kg incl. battery
  • Pen: passive, connected by a wire to the case
  • Display: 10“ LCD black&white, 640×480 pixel
  • Interfaces: RS232C (9 pin), keyboard (5 pin), external bus
  • Released: 1989
  • Initial price: $2370
  • Options:
    • Modem (2400 bps, MNP level 5 protocol=)
    • Hard disk extension unit (about the same size as the tablet): 40 MB HDD, 3.5″ FDD

Links

HTC Dream – the first Android phone

October 28, 2018

HTCDream

The HTC Dream, also known as the T-Mobile G1, was the first Android phone on the market. It was released in September 2008.

According to Wikipedia, ” An early prototype had a close resemblance to a BlackBerry phone, with no touchscreen and a physical QWERTY keyboard, but the arrival of 2007’s Apple iPhone meant that Android “had to go back to the drawing board”. Google later changed its Android specification documents to state that “Touchscreens will be supported”, although “the Product was designed with the presence of discrete physical buttons as an assumption, therefore a touchscreen cannot completely replace physical buttons”. By 2008, both Nokia and BlackBerry announced touch-based smartphones to rival the iPhone 3G, and Android’s focus eventually switched to just touchscreens.”

Although probably done “after having gone to the drawing board”, it seems this phone still breathes the before-touchscreen era having not only a keyboard, but also dedicated “phone up” and “phone down” buttons, as well as a trackball(!).

Although a 2008 phone, you can already load the battery using (mini) USB so there is no need for a proprietary power supply.

So it is a historically important smartphone, but is it also a rare one? Wikipedia quotes “In April 2009, T-Mobile announced that it had sold over a million G1s in the United States, accounting for two thirds of the devices on its 3G network.” So, not really rare 🙂

VCFB 2018: Short Report

October 21, 2018

As you might know by now, I attended the VCFB 2018 in Berlin. I had an exhibit and a presentation. I was most kindly mentioned on a popular German news page. I met many nice people.

The location was held at and co-organised by the German Museum of Technology  which was enough space and resources to support this event in a succesful way. Speaking of success: 2600 visitors have been counted, even more than last year.

Things-to-see-and-hear-wise, it was equally interesting. All the presentations were recorded and are available. There were many interesting exhibits. To me, the most interesting was “Smalltalk, Unix, Plan 9” by Angelo Papenhoff.

DSC_0030.JPG

He showed off:

  • A Xerox Alto simulator (Contralto) showing a very early version of Smalltalk
  • Research Unix (Bell Labs) and their GUI for it(!)
  • Plan 9 and its 9front forks (they develop the system further despite the fact that there is noone “official” from the original project left)

He gave also a presentation on “The GUIs of Research Unix and Plan 9” (German).

For the next year, I offered to contribute to the organization of the event, so maybe next year there will be more information on this event in English.

My VCFB 2018 Exhibit: PDAs using Magic Cap

October 21, 2018

DSC_0027c.jpg

At the VCFB 2018 I had an exhibit called “PDAs using Magic Cap”. It showed off a Sony PIC 1000 and 2000, a Motorola Envoy 100, and an Icras/General Magic DataRover 840. As the focus of the VCFB this time was “Graphical User Interfaces”, I concentrated on the Magic Cap GUI a little bit. Except the Envoy, all devices were up and running (I still have no power supply for the Envoy).

Interest in the exhibit was ok, the biggest group of people said my favorite sentence (“I have never seen something like that”), some were enthusiastic about the comic strip quality of the Magic Cap GUI, and a few people always wanted to have such a device.

There was also one (German) article about the VCFB 2018 which featured my exhibit and the presentation quite prominently.

If you want to read the posters next to the exhibit, either refer to this older blog entry of mine (English) or find it here (German).

My VCFB 2018 Presentation on “Mobile Agents and Telescript”

October 21, 2018

I had a presentation at the VCFB 2018 in Berlin on two topics on one of which I actually am an expert in :-). The title was “Mobile Agents and Telescript” and it dealt with the third topic of the General Magic topic: What would have happened technically if the first wave of Magic Cap devices would have been successful?

I gave my presentation in English for the sole purpose that you can also watch it as it was recorded (as all talks) by a CCC crew. So, without further ado, here is the link to the video recording of the presentation. And here are the slides that I presented that I presented.

VCFB 2018: I’ll be there

October 11, 2018

I’ll be at the Vintage Computing Festival Berlin (VCFB) 2018 exhibiting some General Magic Magic Cap devices and holding a presentation on Mobile Agents and Telescript. The VCFB start October, 13th and 14th in Berlin, Germany.

I would be thrilled to meet some of you there (I never really met a reader except people that read this blog because they know me).

I tried to be able to show the General Magic documentation movie there, but to no avail. Would have been a nice thing, rounding up the General Magic, Magic Cap, Telescript trifecta. However, I’m sure I will see it one day.

Exelbasic + (Plus)

September 2, 2018

exelbasicplusSome time ago, I acquired an Exeltel VX. Like any other flavour of Exelvisions computers (the EXL100 and the other Exeltels) it has no built-in programming language (in case of the Exeltel VXs this would have been a lesser problem anyway as it wants to be a Videotex terminal). However, if you want to load anything from a cassette (or a floppy disk or a battery-buffered RAM) you need your Basic. Exelvision delivered one with every EXL100, the Exelbasic.

In order not to have to borrow an Exelbasic from a friend (hi, cobrakai!), I bought one from Ebay (which does not appear that often as one wants, especially for a sane price). What I ended up with was not an ordinary Exelbasic, but the improved Exelbasic + (Plus) which I did not even know existed. Instead of a measly 200 pages of (French) manual, you have a 300 page one (also French). I am happy!

References

Intergraph Clipper Workstations

July 30, 2018

Just as an addendum to the last post, here is a list of all the Intergraph Interpro workstation models with a Clipper CPU.

We start with the earliest models:

Model Year of Introduction CPU
32C 1986 C100
120 1988 C100
125 1989 C100
220 1988 C100
225 1989 C100
340 1988 C100
360 1988 C100

From about 1989, Intergraph introduces a systematic naming scheme. It is described as a comment in the MAME emulator code in the Reference section. It follows an ABCD format:

  • A: case type (2=desktop, 6=minicase)
  • B: CPU type (0=C300, 4=C4T, 6=C400?, 7/8/5 = C400I)
  • C: graphics type (0=none, 3/5=GT, 4=EDGE-1, 8 = EDGE-2)
  • D: usually 0, 6xxx systems have 5, 7 and 9 options (backplane type?)

Graphics type 3 is for GT graphics fitted to a 2xxx system, and type 5 when fitted to a 6xxx system.

This scheme allows you, in principle, to generate all possible model numbers. However, of course, the CPUs and the graphic options developed over time and older options were not necessarily offered later on.

These are the models that I could find in the literature:

Model Year of Introduction CPU
2020 1991 C300
2430 1992 C400
2730 1993 C400
2830 1994? C400
3050 1989 C300
3070 1989 C300
6040 1990 C300
6080 1990 C300
6240 1990 C300
6280 1990 C300
6450 1992 C400
6480 1992 C400
6750 1993 C400
6780 1993 C400
6850 1993 C400
6880 1993 C400

Now, if you read the above scheme carefully and compared it to the list above, you can see that the scheme is missing some values. First, there seems to be a short-lived “3” case type. Second, there is an unkown CPU type “2”, obviously also a C300. Third, two unknown graphics options “0” and “7”.

Finally, I assume that the CPU type “8” is a C400 that runs on 50 MHz instead of the 40 MHz of the “7” models.

References